First State Bank of Aguilar / Gianella Building
102 E. Main St.
State Register 9/14/2005, 5LA.1108
The building housed the First State Bank of Aguilar, which was founded in 1910 and served as the town’s only banking institution until 1927. The building is an example of a two-part commercial block with horizontal divisions into two distinct zones - its large display windows on the street level indicating the public spaces, with the smaller windows on the upper level suggesting more private spaces. The building is one of only two stone commercial buildings in Aguilar. (1975 photograph.) More information (PDF, 224 kb).
Pleasant Valley School
County Rd. 142 just south of US Hwy. 160, Branson vicinity
National Register listed 8/13/2008, 5LA.11144
Constructed by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1938, the Pleasant Valley School presents an important visual record of the federal relief programs administered in Colorado’s eastern plains during the Great Depression. Though the dire economic conditions of the Depression affected all of Colorado, drought and dust storms hit the agricultural-based economy of the Eastern Plains especially hard. President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal legislative agenda to rescue the United States from the Great Depression included the creation of an unprecedented number of policies, programs, and agencies to provide relief, employment, conserve natural resources, and assist in construction of public works - all with the greater goal of stimulating the devastated economy. Criticized by some as make-work boondoggles, WPA projects such as the construction of the school provided much-needed employment in an isolated, rural area of Las Animas County where little other work was available. The stonework displays the labor-intensive, hand-craftsmanship associated with the WPA and often referred to as WPA Rustic style. The property is associated with the New Deal Resources on Colorado’s Eastern Plains and Rural School Buildings in Colorado Multiple Property Submissions. (2007 photograph.) See related properties (Schools), (New Deal) More information (PDF, 1.13 MB).
Cty. Road 171, Branson vicinity
National Register 12/22/2009, 5LA.11145
The 7-D School, constructed in 1936 to 1937 under the Works Progress Administration (WPA) is significant for its association with President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal legislative agenda to rescue the United States from the Great Depression. The School presents an important record of the federal relief programs administered in Colorado’s Eastern Plains during the Great Depression. Though the dire economic conditions of the Depression affected all of Colorado, drought and dust storms hit the agricultural-based economy of the Eastern Plains especially hard. The construction of the school provided much-needed employment in an isolated, rural area of Las Animas County where little other work was available. Additionally, the 7-D School is a good example of WPA Rustic architecture applied to a simple, one-room school building. The stonework displays the labor-intensive hand-craftsmanship that typifies the work of the WPA in southeastern Colorado. This craftsmanship is particularly characteristic of projects from rural Las Animas County since there was little access to construction machinery or pre-fabricated materials, but many local stone quarries.
The 7-D School is also important for educating rural schoolchildren for many years. The school is an excellent example of WPA efforts to improve rural education facilities in eastern Las Animas County. This building, reflects WPA efforts to improve education and to help small communities with limited resources. The 7-D School meets the registration requirements of the schoolhouse property type as delineated in the Multiple Property Documentation Form Rural School Buildings in Colorado. As well, it meets the requirements of one property type delineated in the New Deal Resources on Colorado’s Eastern Plains MPDF: Educational Buildings (subtype: Primary and Secondary School Facilities).
Cokedale Historic District
Church, Maple, Pine, Elm, & Spruce Sts.
National Register 1/18/1985, 5LA.5782
Cokedale is a significant example of a company-owned coal camp and is associated with the coal mining and coke industry that served as the predominant basis of the southern Colorado economy around 1900. While most similar coal camps were dismantled as mines ceased operation in the Las Animas-Huerfano district beginning after World War I, Cokedale continued to thrive as a company town until 1946. Constructed in 1906-1907, it was long heralded as a model camp, with housing, educational and recreational facilities provided for its inhabitants by their employer, the American Smelting and Refining Company. Most of the houses, as well as the public and commercial buildings, have survived essentially intact. Also important are the surviving coke ovens. The two rows of double sided units are the largest surviving group of coke ovens in the state. The property is associated with the Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1999 photograph.)
National Register 10/23/2013, 5LA.11864
The 1909 Earl School is an important building not only for providing 37 years of education to the students in Earl and the surrounding area, but also for serving as the only venue available in the Earl area for social functions. It is also significant for ethnic heritage, as African American students from a nearby African American farming colony and Hispanic students attended the school along with some Euro-American students. Additionally, the Earl School is a good example of a one-room adobe schoolhouse, built not for the aesthetic value, but for functionality using locally available and inexpensive materials. The school meets the registration requirements of the Schoolhouse Property Type as defined in the Multiple Property Documentation Form (MPDF) Rural School Buildings in Colorado.
425 State St.
National Register 4/24/2007, 5LA.1815
Three stone buildings, a gymnasium flanked by an elementary and a high school, represent the work of several New Deal relief programs administered in eastern Colorado. Constructed over an eight-year period, the buildings provided employment in Kim during much of the Great Depression. Construction on the gymnasium began in December 1933 as a Civil Works Administration project. It was completed in the spring of 1935 after being transferred to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and finished by a Works Progress Administration project. The school district submitted a successful WPA application for the 1937 elementary school. The WPA approved a third project in 1938 for the county high school building, which was dedicated in January 1941. These were the first substantial education buildings constructed in Kim. Built from locally quarried stone with framing materials salvaged from buildings demolished at Fort Lyon, they are excellent examples of New Deal Rustic design with craftsmanship, materials, and construction methods reflecting their origin as public works programs designed to provide employment. The three buildings remain the center of local education and community activities. The property is associated with the New Deal Resources in Eastern Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1999 photograph.) More information (PDF, 748 kb).
Intersection of County roads 191 and 30, Kim vicinity
National Register 8/1/2008, 5LA.11139
Built in 1921 and expanded in 1936 under the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the school exemplifies one-room schools constructed in eastern Las Animas County during the homesteading boom of the 1910s and 1920s. The school addition and its adjacent WPA-constructed barn, intended to store coal and shelter student’s horses, reflect Depression era New Deal efforts to improve rural education facilities in eastern Las Animas County. The WPA constructed new schools and barns for several rural school districts and repaired the facilities of many others. Constructed for a small school district with minimal matching funds, the project typifies WPA efforts to improve education and to help small communities with limited resources. The buildings are good examples of WPA Rustic design applied to a simple barn and a school addition. The similarity of the stonework of the original building and the addition shows how WPA construction drew strongly on local building traditions. The stonework displays the labor-intensive, hand-craftsmanship associated with the WPA and often referred to as WPA Rustic style. The work crew quarried and finished all the stone. The property is associated with the New Deal Resources on Colorado’s Eastern Plains and Rural School Buildings in Colorado Multiple Property Submissions. (2006 photograph.)
See related properties (Schools), (New Deal). More information (PDF, 1.6 MB).
Ludlow Tent Colony Site
Del Aqua Canyon Rd.
National Register 6/19/1985, National Historic Landmark 1/16/2009, 5LA.1829
The 40-acre parcel comprises the site of the Ludlow tent colony and represents the event known as the Ludlow Massacre. On April 20, 1914, after shots were fired between the striking mine workers at the Ludlow colony and the Colorado militia, fires destroyed the entire tent colony. Two women and eleven children suffocated in a cellar under one of the tents. The Ludlow Massacre is considered a major event in American labor history. The site also includes a monument erected in 1918 by the United Mine Workers of America, who own and maintain the property. The property is associated with the Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (2011 photograph.) National Historic Landmark listing.
Bridge over Burro Cañon
Colo. Hwy. 12
National Register 2/4/1985, 5LA.1825
Completed in 1936, the bridge consists of three skewed semicircular arches with multiplates fabricated by the Hardesty Manufacturing Company. It features rusticated stone facing and grapevined mortar joints, trademarks of Works Progress Administration workmanship in southeastern Colorado. It is Colorado’s only WPA bridge of skewed construction employing a multiplate liner. Listed under Highway Bridges in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1980 photograph.)
Colorado Millennial Site / Hackberry Site / Bloody Springs
National Register 4/8/1980, 5LA.1115
This site with its multiple prehistoric and historic components is one of a few known sites in Colorado that has been identified with such an extended period of occupation—possibly 7,000 years. The rock art is notable for its quantity, range of styles, and well-preserved context. It is also the 1868 location of a 7th Cavalry fight with Cheyennes, the last historically documented skirmish involving Plains Indians and the military in southeastern Colorado.
Trinchera Cave Archaeological District
National Register 10/22/2001, 5LA.9555
The district is significant for its potential to yield important information regarding prehistoric and historic peoples. Nomadic hunter-gatherer bands used the area from circa 1250 BC through AD 1725, followed by more intermittent occupations into the 19th century.
711 Colorado Ave.
National Register 7/11/2007, 5LA. 11060
Oliver E. Aultman commissioned the construction of this house for his family in 1905. A highly successful commercial photographer, Aultman documented life and culture in southern Colorado from the 1890s to the 1950s. His portraits reflect the extraordinary ethnic and socio-economic diversity of the area. His studio was purportedly the oldest established studio in Colorado operated continuously by one man. This “pioneer Trinidad photographer” resided here until his death in 1953. The house is a well-preserved example of a Queen Anne residence in Trinidad. Characteristics of this style can be seen in its asymmetrical composition, steeply pitched hipped roof and wraparound porch. It has a distinctive, large, two-story tower with a conical roof. (1907 photograph.) More information (PDF, 1.46 MB).
Baca House (Trinidad History Museum)
300 block of Main St.
National Register 2/26/1970, 5LA.1630
Built in 1870, the interior of this adobe house blends Hispanic folk art with Victorian furnishings. It is now operated as part of the Trinidad History Museum by History Colorado. The property is associated with the Historic Resources of the Santa Fe Trail, 1821-1880 Multiple Property Submission. (ca. 2000 photograph.)
Frank G. Bloom House (Trinidad History Museum)
300 block of Main St.
National Register 2/26/1970, 5LA.2180
This large, mansard roofed Victorian house was built for cattle baron Frank Bloom and his wife Sarah in 1882. It is now operated as part of the Trinidad History Museum by History Colorado. (1997 photograph.)
Carnegie Public Library
202 N. Animas St.
National Register 4/14/1995, 5LA.2179.21
The building is one of 36 Carnegie libraries constructed in Colorado. Kansas architect John G. Haskell’s Neo-Classical design includes symmetrically balanced windows and a dominant central porch entry. His use of round-arched window openings with decorative moldings is a distinctive variation on the style. (1997 photograph.)
Corazon de Trinidad District
Roughly bounded by Brown St., Chestnut, Elm, Walnut, 3rd St., S. Animas, W. 1st St., & N. Nevada
National Register 2/28/1973, 5LA.2179
The “Heart of Trinidad” embodies some of the best examples of Late Victorian commercial architecture in Colorado. Dating back to 1876, Trinidad quickly became the financial, retail and cultural hub of southern Colorado with the development of nearby coal fields and the arrival of the railroad. While many fine old Late Victorian homes are scattered through the town, the nomination focuses on a few streets in the very heart of the city and discusses 55 buildings, the majority of which are located within the limited boundaries of the original townsite. Much of the downtown area was included to demonstrate the strong visual impact imparted by the town as a whole. (1972 photograph.) More information (PDF, 15.5 MB).
East Street School
206 East St.
National Register 12/19/2007, 5LA.11123
Constructed in 1919 to serve the growing primary school population in an expanding neighborhood some distance east of Trinidad’s center, the East Street School remained in operation for over 80 years. The prolific architectural firm of Isaac H. Rapp and William M. Rapp, responsible for numerous commercial, religious and residential buildings in Trinidad, designed the brick building. The Rapp brothers designed five public schools in Trinidad of which only two remain. Unlike their previous schools which were multi-storied contained buildings, the architects created a sprawling one-story layout inspired from California. East Street School represents an innovation in school design that would become popular after World War II. The school reflects the Arts and Crafts movement in its one-story design, slightly stepped parapets, wall pilasters, and the use of contrasting darker brick for stringcourses and two-dimensional “strap-work” ornamentation. East Street School represents the diversity of styles in which Rapp & Rapp designed. (2007 photograph.) More information (PDF, 980 kb).
Charles Emerick House
1211 Nevada Ave.
National Register 3/18/2014, 5LA.13268
The 1905 Charles Emerick House is architecturally significant as an excellent example of a Mixed Style building and the 1904 carriage house for the type and method of construction. The Mixed Style exhibited by the house combines the Gothic Revival, Late Victorian and Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movement styles. Because of its placement, the Gothic Revival round tower creates a character-defining dominant feature on the house’s southeastern corner of the main façade. Late Victorian style character-defining features include its asymmetrical front façade, rough-faced sandstone dentils, beltcourse, watertable and front-gabled projection. Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements character-defining features include the hipped roof of the main portion of the house, wide overhanging flared eaves with brackets, and hipped-roof dormers. Charles Emerick constructed the buildings for his family. (2013 photograph.) More information (PDF, 2.03 MB).
First Baptist Church
809 San Pedro St.
National Register 1/28/2000, 5LA.8697
This 1890 Late Victorian sandstone building, sometimes described as a “medieval fantasy,” shows great attention to detail and excellent stone work. It is the second commission of record for the architectural firm of Charles W. Bulger and Isaac Hamilton Rapp. Although short lived, the firm designed several fine Trinidad buildings.
First Christian Church
200 S. Walnut St.
National Register 11/7/1995, 5LA.6551
The 1922 church was one of the last buildings designed by the prominent Trinidad based architectural firm of Rapp, Rapp, and Hendrickson. The Mediterranean-inspired structure exhibits classical detailing in the Roman Doric Order used in the entablature and main entry. (1997 photograph.)
First Methodist Episcopal Church
216 Broom St.
National Register 8/7/2005, 5LA.10365
Constructed in 1911, the First Methodist Episcopal Church is a good local example of the Romanesque Revival Style. Its metal-clad central dome is a distinctive feature within Trinidad’s architectural heritage, as is its yellow brick construction. Dome roofs are not often seen in Romanesque Revival churches in Colorado and red brick was the material of choice for the majority of Trinidad’s buildings. The church reflects elements of the Romanesque Revival style as seen in its overall massing, the use of the semi-circular arch for window and door openings, various roof shapes, crenellated parapets, and square towers flanking the facade. The building also reflects important elements of the Akron Plan, utilized by Protestant denominations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite some interior alterations, characteristics of the Akron Plan are still visible in this church, including the sloping floor, the curved pews set on the diagonal in a square open nave, a large undulating balcony, the corner elevated chancel, and folding doors that enlarge the nave. Colorado Springs architect Thomas B. Barber is credited with the design of the building. Prominent early members included Oliver and Otis Aultman, well-known local photographers who had their studio across the street from the church.
Jaffa Opera House / Hausman Drug
100-116 W. Main St.
National Register 2/7/1972, 5LA.2181
The two-story brick and sandstone Italianate style building, with its elaborate bracketed cornice, was one of the first buildings in the area to make use of the high quality sandstone from nearby quarries. Constructed in 1883, the building was the cultural heart of the city for the next twenty years. The top stage, opera, and vaudeville troupes touring throughout the western part of the country performed here. (2001 photograph.)
Frank Latuda House
431 W. Colorado Ave.
National Register 1/27/2010, 5LA.12217
The 1925 Frank Latuda House is architecturally significant as an excellent example of an early twentieth-century distinctive Mediterranean Revival style house. Character-defining features include a red tile, low-pitched hipped roof, arched entrances, light colored brick, and original woodwork, hardware, and fixtures. The Mediterranean Revival is not a common style in Trinidad and the house is the only documented example by the prolific firm of I.H. Rapp, W.M. Rapp and A.C. Hendrickson, Architects. The Frank Latuda House is significant at the state level as the only unaltered, intact Mediterranean Revival residence and garage known to exist in rural eastern Colorado. Initially popularized by the 1915 Pan American Exhibition in San Diego, Mediterranean Revival style architecture became a prominent eclectic design in coastal cities of Florida and California through the 1920s.
1919 Pinon St.
National Register 11/4/2009, 5LA.12110
The 1891 McCormick House is architecturally significant as a good example of a late 19th century distinctive Queen Anne style house. The house displays the prominent features of the Queen Anne style in its steeply pitched hipped roof with lower cross gable roofs, round tower, balconies, dormers, arched window, decorative fishscale shingles, and overall discontinuity of the vertical wall plane. The two-story front porch exhibits a Colonial Revival influence and dominates the recessed center bay of the facade. The house, which is the largest house in the northwestern part of Trinidad, represents the work of Charles William Bulger and Isaac Hamilton Rapp, who were prominent architects in the area.
212 E. 2nd St.
National Register 8/30/2005, 5LA.2179.111
One of the finest residences erected in early 20th century Trinidad, the noted architectural firm of Isaac Hamilton and William Mason Rapp designed the Nichols House. The most influential architects in Trinidad, the Rapp brothers designed many of the city’s highly significant buildings, including churches, commercial blocks, and residences. This 1904 house is believed to be the firm’s most distinguished residential commission, noted for the quality of its stonework, the multiple shingled gables, and a substantial wrap-around porch. The building is representative of transitional eclectic architecture combining Late Victorian influences with elements from early 20th century styles. (2005 photograph.)
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Church
909 Robinson Ave.
State Register 8/21/2008, 5LA.5906
The work of the prominent architectural firm of Isaac H. and William M. Rapp, the 1907 building is one of only two churches in Trinidad identified as designed by the Rapp brothers’ firm. A well-preserved example of Romanesque Revival style religious construction in Trinidad, Mount Carmel is also significant for its association with the local Italian American community. The church served a predominantly Italian American population and focused its efforts on the Catholics in the western and southwestern parts of the city. Its churchgoers were primarily families headed by workers employed in area coal mines, farms, and railroads. The Italian lodge met in the church, and its members included the priest and the entire Mount Carmel band. A second, smaller ethnic group served by the church consisted of Hispanics or Mexican Americans. (2007 photograph.) See related properties.
12 miles south of Trinidad
National Historic Landmark 12/19/1960, National Register 10/15/1966, 5LA.2182
Raton Pass provided the shortest and most practical route from the upper Arkansas Valley to New Mexico. Both a barrier and a gateway, the Raton Mountains symbolized the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail. Although not highly significant in the routine progress of trail development, the Mountain Branch and its most important feature, Raton Pass, played a significant role in military history. Kearney’s Army of the West used this route in 1846 on its way to the conquest of New Mexico. In 1862, Colorado Volunteers poured through Raton Pass on their way to Glorieta Pass, where they defeated troops of the Confederate Army. The property is associated with the Historic Resources of the Santa Fe Trail, 1821-1880 Multiple Property Submission.
Reilly Canyon Bridge P-18-U & P-18-7
32610 Colo. Hwy. 12, Trinidad Lake State Park
State Register 12/8/1999, 5LA.8579
The bridge spans Reilly Creek as part of an abandoned segment of Colo. Hwy. 12. It includes three separate spans over the creek and a large single-span overpass for the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Constructed in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, the bridge with its rock-faced masonry and beaded mortar joints is characteristic of WPA construction in southeastern Colorado. (2003 photograph.)
Trinidad Post Office
301 E. Main St.
National Register 1/22/1986, 5LA.2179.93
The well-preserved building, constructed in 1920, is the purest example of the Beaux-Arts inspired styling reflected in Colorado’s post offices. Listed under U.S. Post Offices in Colorado Thematic Resource.
Zion’s German Lutheran Church
510 Pine St.
National Register 10/25/2006, 5LA.10968
Constructed in 1890, the eclectic building almost defies architectural classification. Primarily Victorian Gothic (as evident by its steeply pitched roof, pointed arched windows, and polychromatic exterior of contrasting materials), the church includes elements from several other styles of the Late Victorian period. The prominent, albeit short-lived, Trinidad architectural firm of Bulger & Rapp designed the church. Although their partnership lasted only a few years, it resulted in many fine buildings that are an important part of the city’s architectural heritage. Charles Bulger & Isaac Hamilton Rapp designed four houses of worship in Trinidad. This was the firm’s second commission for a religious building, and it illustrates their talent for designing unusual buildings epitomizing the eclecticism of the Victorian Age. (2005 photograph.) More information (PDF, 1.95 MB).
Rourke Ranch Historic District
Comanche National Grassland
National Register 9/21/2000, 5LA.8813
Rourke Ranch played a significant role in the settlement and agricultural development of the Purgatoire River area and continues to reflect the interaction of its Hispanic and Anglo-American settlers. Beginning in the early 1880s, brothers Eugene and James Rourke began acquiring the lands of departing Hispanic farmers and sheep growers, eventually amassing one of the largest cattle ranches in the area. The district includes the site of Eugene Rourke’s original 1875 ranchstead, which was abandoned in favor of a new ranch headquarters after a flood in 1904. The collection of intact buildings and structures at the new ranchstead date from the first decades of the 20th century and reflect a range of construction techniques and traditions, including the use of adobe, horizontal and vertical logs, and stone as building materials. (2000 photograph.)
Torres Cave Archaeological Site
National Register, 4/29/1980, 5LA.1310
A 1977 excavation resulted in the analysis of over 600 artifacts that revealed the site had functioned from approximately AD 350 to AD 1400 as a hunting and foraging station. (1977 photograph.)