Baxstrom Upper Place Homestead House
State Register 8/31/2006, 5MT.12937
The homestead house, constructed in 1933 by a father and son, illustrates building techniques reflecting the influence and traditions of the Baxstroms’ grandfather, a well-known local mason. The construction method represents the application of readily available local materials during a period of economic depression. (2006 photograph.) More information (PDF, 555.05 kb).
National Register 4/30/1997, 5MT.338
This large settlement, occupied between AD 1140 and AD 1300, possesses the distinctive characteristics of "Hovenweep-type" architecture and construction methods and illustrates the shift of residential settlements to the rim of entrenched canyons. Sylvanus Morley, an important figure in American archaeology directed his first excavation at the ruin in 1908. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.
Cortez High School
121 E. First Street, Cortez
National Register 3/22/2016, 5MT.12697
The Cortez High School, also known as the Calkins School, was constructed in three phases (1909, 1924, 1935), reflecting the community’s growing population as well as targeted periods of public investment in education in Montezuma County. The 1935 expansion was funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which replicated original details such as the arched entrance while simultaneously restyling the building by removing the original bell tower and hipped roof, resulting in a more simple design common to WPA projects. In addition to its important role in local education, the school building is important as a local example of the WPA Rustic Style. More information (PDF, 1.9 MB).
Ertel Funeral Home
42 N. Market St.
National Register 11/7/1995, 5MT.6925
The 1936 building incorporates such Mission style features as a tile roof, stucco finish, an arched entry, and a campanario (vertical wall projection holding a bell). The flat roof sections and vegas are elements seen in the Pueblo Revival style. (1995 photograph.)
Hovenweep National Monument - Goodman Point
Northwest of Cortez
National Register 10/15/1966, 5MT.604
Extending into Utah, these ruins are noted for their square, oval, circular, and D-shaped towers, some three-to-four stories in height. The actual function of the towers is not known. Some archaeologists theorize that they are long-distance signaling structures, while others believe they were defensive architecture. (2008 photograph.)
Indian Camp Ranch Archaeological District
National Register 3/28/2012, 5MT.19927
The Indian Camp Ranch Archaeological District is significant in the areas of Exploration/Settlement, Agriculture, Economics, Architecture, Religion, Archaeology/Prehistoric, Community Planning and Development, and Politics/Government at the national level. The district covers 1200 acres and contributing resources of a well-preserved series of Ancient Puebloan sites from the Basketmaker III Period.
30 miles northwest of Cortez
National Historic Landmark 7/19/1964, National Register 10/15/1966, 5MT.1566
Ancient Pueblo people constructed the multi-storied, 50-room village about AD 1061 on top of the ruins of 8th century pithouses. Used for living quarters and ritual ceremonies by a community of about 100 people, today the ruins exhibit fine masonry construction and a kiva once plastered with bold geometric designs. The site contains one of the largest great kivas found in southwestern Colorado.
Southwest of Cortez
State Register 9/9/1998, 5MT.13041
Located within the McElmo River drainage, the site marks the location of a loose cluster of 20 individual habitations or pueblos that were occupied between AD 1000-1250.
Mesa Verde Administration District
Mesa Verde National Park
National Historic Landmark 5/28/1987, National Register 5/28/1987, 5MT.9790
The core administrative buildings at Mesa Verde - the superintendent’s residence (1921), park headquarters building (1923), post office (1923), ranger club (1925), museum (1923-4), and community building (1927) - are the first National Park Service structures to experiment with architectural designs based in strong local cultural traditions. The buildings are excellent examples of the Pueblo Revival style, in this instance modified to reflect and enhance the interpretation of the prehistoric structures of the surrounding area. (Residence 7, 1974 photograph.)
Mesa Verde National Park Archaeological District
US Hwy. 160, 8 miles east of Cortez
National Register 10/15/1966, World Heritage Site, 5MT.4341
This is the most extensive and well-developed example of pre-historic cliff dwellings in the United States. The ruins trace the development of the Anasazi as they moved from the early pithouses on the mesa-tops to the large apartment complexes built in caves on the cliff walls of the canyons. More than 4,000 excavated and unexcavated mesa-top and cliff-side sites dot the more than 50,000 nominated acres of the park. Declared a National Park in 1906, Mesa Verde is also important as a landmark of cultural preservation in the United States. It was one of the nation’s earliest attempts to preserve a large tract of archaeological ruins and a collection of artifacts through federal legislation. (1975 photograph.)
Mitchell Springs Ruin Group
State Register 3/8/2000, National Register 11/9/2001, 5MT.10991
This prehistoric community was occupied from at least AD 800 to the mid-13th century. It may yield important discoveries relating to social history, agriculture, architecture, commerce, and community planning and development. Although much has been backfilled to preserve and protect the resources, it contains a range of architectural styles associated with all three Pueblo periods. Two significant features include an unusually large kiva and a unique D-shaped tri-wall structure. It also played a major role in the development of the Prudden "unit pueblo" concept, a basic architectural form for these prehistoric people. Listed under the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission. (2009 photograph.)
Montezuma Valley Irrigation Company Flume No. 6
National Register 3/27/2012, 5MT.20000
The Montezuma Valley Irrigation Company Flume No. 6 (also known as the McElmo Creek Flume) was part of a large irrigation system that aimed to deliver water to arid areas of the Montezuma Valley, and which allowed agriculture and ranching to become a major economic component in the area. In 1921, the flume (originally built in 1896) was upgraded from what was most likely a box flume to a semi-circular flume. In 1955, the original wood cradles were made more stable by the installation of a steel and concrete substructure. The Flume is the only remaining flume from the Montezuma Valley Irrigation Company and is representative of frontier technological innovation.
Montezuma Valley National Bank and Store
2-8 Main St.
National Register, 1/15/2009, 5MT.19093
The Montezuma Valley National Bank and its associated store building played a significant role in the commercial history of Cortez. In 1908 the Montezuma Valley National Bank initiated construction of a stone building. For over four decades (from 1915 through 1957), this building housed the town’s only bank. Shortly after its construction, the bank continued the masonry walls and sheet metal trim onto its adjacent lot creating another commercial building that became an investment property for the bank. This circa 1910 building housed a series of commercial enterprises including one of the town’s first bakeries, a drug store and a grocer/butcher shop. Additionally, the buildings are significant for their method of construction. Longtime, local stonemason Peter Baxstrom and his son Henry utilized sandstone quarried nearby for the two buildings. Very few stone buildings have been identified in Cortez and these are the only commercial buildings employing classical ornamentation – as seen in the dentiled cornices and the pedimented entryways with modillions. This classical ornamentation is sheet metal– a lighter, cheaper and fire-resistant building material that reached its peak of popularity in the last decade of the 19th and first decade of the 20th centuries. More information (PDF, 3.14 MB).
Mud Springs Pueblo
National Register 10/29/1982, 5MT.4466
One of the largest prehistoric communities in Colorado, Mud Springs consists of at least 16 major architectural features including large roomblocks, towers, and tri-walled structures. This is one of several Montezuma valley sites that share broad similarities but also display differences in terms of layout, house types, public architecture, and perhaps time spans. This site was badly looted prior to its rescue in the 1980s. (1986 photograph.)
National Register 1/31/1992, 5MT.3930
Occupied in the early AD 1200s, this small habitation site is a classic Prudden Unit, containing a masonry roomblock, a kiva, a tower, and a midden. A relatively undisturbed site with intact cultural deposits, it contains archaeological data that may address a wide variety of research questions. Listed under the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.
National Register 3/15/2005, 5MT.16853
State Register 3/12/2003, National Register 3/24/2005, 5MT.6970
Exhibiting four distinct construction periods, the site includes a multi-story Great House, a small unit pueblo, and a reservoir. Wallace Ruin has yielded important information about prehistoric pueblo communities during the rise and fall of the Chaco culture and the cultural dynamics that preceded abandonment of the region. The site’s layout, architectural engineering, and masonry styles embody the distinctive features of Chaco Great House monumental architecture. The property is associated with the Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission. (2008 photograph.)
Yucca House National Monument
Via US Hwy. 666, 12 miles south of Cortez
National Register 10/15/1966, 5MT.5006
Set aside as a National Monument in 1919, this Chacoan "outlier" site with tree ring dates of AD 1163 through 1263 represents a culmination of the long sequence of Formative Period cultural development of southwestern Colorado. This habitation site with public architecture, including a great kiva, has the potential to address questions regarding population dynamics and abandonment, agricultural techniques and water control systems, and social and political integration.
Anasazi Archaeological District
Northwest of Dolores
National Register 7/19/1984, 5MT.6599
The focus of one of the largest federally funded cultural resource mitigation efforts ever funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the district has seen a wide variety of human visitation and occupation over time. Firm evidence of regular human occupation dates from about 3000 BC onward, with the most intensive peopling occurring in the developmental Anasazi tradition. It is now largely submerged.
West of Dolores
National Register 11/20/1975, 5MT.2149
Noted in the journals of Father Silvestre Escalante during a 1776 expedition, this is the first recorded archaeological site in what is now the state of Colorado. Comprised of a nine-room surface pueblo with an enclosed kiva, it was originally constructed during the Pueblo II period (AD 900 to 1100) and continued in use into the Pueblo III phase (AD 1100 to 1300). The partially excavated Chacoan outlier is part of the Anasazi Heritage Center and is open to the public. (2004 photograph.)
This gasoline-powered narrow gauge railroad car, constructed in 1933, provided the Rio Grande Southern Railroad with a cost saving alternative to the more expensive steam locomotive passenger trains and allowed the company to continue operating in the San Juans until 1952. A gasoline engine is under the hood of a 1928 Pierce-Arrow touring car. The passenger section, a later modification to the car’s original design, is a 1946 Wayne school bus body. The rear section, designed for baggage, is a large wood frame compartment covered with galvanized tin. The Galloping Goose Historical Society in Dolores restored the rail car to operation condition. (1998 photograph.)
24925 County Rd. T, Dolores vicinity
National Register 5/29/1996, 5MT.12133
The school is associated with the educational, recreational, and social activities of the Lebanon community. It is an interesting example of the Classical Revival style in a rural schoolhouse.
State Register 3/13/2002, 5MT.5518
This residential cluster of eleven unit pueblos with a focus of occupation between AD 1075 and 1150 has potential to yield important information about community formation and population dynamics in the central Mesa Verde region. As the site is larger than a household but smaller than a community, it holds an important place in the evolution of prehistoric Puebloan society.
R.S.S. Fox House
214 S. 8th St.
State Register 5/18/2005, 5MT.13083
The 1917 house is a good local expression of the Craftsman style. Despite the enclosure of the porch, the home possesses distinctive characteristics of the style as seen in the full-width front porch with its short, square columns resting on larger piers, the triangular knee braces along the sloping edges of the roof, and the roof’s overhanging open eaves with exposed rafters. The porte cochère (covered carriage or automobile entryway) is an element infrequently seen in Craftsman homes. The interior of the houses also reflects the Craftsman style with its oak fireplace and tile surround, the pedestal colonnaded cased openings with built-in bookcases, and the plate rail. The Fox House is the largest residential example of the Craftsman style in Dolores, and it is the only house in town with a porte cochère. At the time of construction, Fox worked in the Dolores bank and also sold insurance. (1997 photograph.) More information (PDF, 64 kb).
The Southern Hotel / Rio Grande Southern Hotel
101 S. 5th St.
National Register 2/23/1989, 5MT.10460
Constructed in 1893, with a 1902 addition, this is the oldest building in Dolores. The 2½-story building, which took its name from the railroad line, was the first hotel in town. For many years, it was the only hotel in Dolores and the only railroad eating house between Durango and Telluride. Since its construction, the Southern has been in continuous use as a boarding house and hotel. (2000 photograph.)
Bauer Bank Building
107 W. Grand Ave.
State Register 11/9/1994, National Register 10/11/2003, 5MT.8590
The 1905 building is the only remaining evidence of the town’s successfully orchestrated effort to defy the Rio Grande Southern Railroad by constructing substantial commercial buildings southeast of the railroad’s siding. This effort established the commercial core of the town closer to the river and set the pattern of development for Mancos as it is known today. The other commercial buildings at this intersection have all been lost, only the Bauer Bank Block remains. It is the oldest surviving commercial masonry building in the Mancos Valley, and the only historic commercial building left in town that employs the once popular combination of sandstone and brick. (1999 photograph.)
102 Bauer Ave.
State Register 9/11/1996, 5MT.8591
Constructed in 1889, the property is associated with the early settlement of Mancos and was the residence of George Bauer, a pioneer merchant and banker, who occupied the house until his death in 1905. He was also a stone mason and assisted in the construction. In 1881, Bauer established the first store in Mancos. (1996 photograph.)
State Register 3/13/2002, 5MT.4388
Consisting of one architectural unit that dates between AD 750 and 850 and six architectural units that were generally occupied between AD 1000 and 1150, the site has the potential to yield important information regarding village organization during the Pueblo I and II periods.
Lost Canyon Archaeological District
National Register 10/18/1988, 5MT.10435
The Lost Canyon settlement may establish the extreme northern extension of Mesa Verde related habitation communities. The appearance of multi-room, stone masonry structures concentrated along high elevation, south facing canyon rims, cliffs and talus slopes, is a well defined settlement pattern characteristic of the Four Corners region during the Late Pueblo II and Early Pueblo III period extending from AD 1050-1300. (1987 photograph.)
Mancos High School
350 Grand Ave.
National Register 12/23/1991, 5MT.11432
The 1909 two-story sandstone building was the first high school constructed in Montezuma County. The building was not only an important educational facility; it was also used as a community meeting place after the gymnasium/auditorium was built in 1920. The building is noted for its distinctive design and the fine workmanship of the locally quarried stone. (1999 photograph.)
Mancos Opera House
136 W. Grand Ave.
National Register 1/7/1988, 5MT.8592
Completed in 1910, the red brick building with cast concrete trim was the center of widespread community activity in Mancos and drew people from neighboring towns. Designed in the early 20th century Commercial style, it is one of the largest commercial buildings in Mancos and Montezuma County. Although it has the appearance of a three story building on the exterior, the large second floor has a high ceiling designed to accommodate a wide variety of social and recreational activities, from dances and sporting events to stage productions. (1999 photograph.)
208 Bauer Ave.
National Register 2/14/1997, 5MT.8594
Constructed in 1903, the building is a product of Late Victorian architecture, employing elements from several styles. Its eclectic design and stone construction are very unusual for Mancos.
James A. Lancaster Site / Clawson Ruin
Pleasant View vicinity
National Register 4/14/1980, 5MT.4803
This very large complex of largely undisturbed pueblo ruins displays significant potential for archaeological research because of its integrity. The surface evidence suggests that the site may have been a favored settlement location over a long period of pueblo development, thereby providing the opportunity for studying the evolution of the site.
Pleasant View vicinity
National Register 4/7/1980, 5MT.4802
In an area with numerous pueblo ruins, this pueblo site is noteworthy because of its size and the presence of unusual features-notably the great kiva and an abundance of red ware pottery sherds. The site shows potential for significant archaeological research because of its large size, integrity, and proximity to Lowry Ruin.
Pleasant View vicinity
State Register 9/9/1998, 5MT.11787
Puzzle House is a multi-component Ancestral Pueblo habitation site that attracted residents at three different times, beginning as early as AD 650 and twice later from about AD 1075-1225. It is the only extensively tested unit pueblo of the Lowry archaeological area, one of the largest prehistoric communities in southwestern Colorado.
Puzzle House Archaeological District
Pleasant View vicinity
State Register 11/20/2008, 5MT.19095
The Puzzle House Archaeological District contains four major habitation sites, three pre-Columbian road segments, and numerous other sites, features and artifacts representing a residential community associated with adjacent Lowry Pueblo, a great house complex that shows evidence of influence or alliance with the large Chacoan centers to the south. The sites are significant as they represent Basketmaker III through early Pueblo III (A.D. 650-1250) exploration, settlement, and community planning and development associated with a major habitation site with public architecture located with the central Mesa Verde region. The District meets the registration requirement for the Habitation Sites and Temporary Habitation Sites property types specified in the Multiple Property Listing titled Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, A.D. 1075-1300. Both property types have excellent potential of yielding important information to our understanding of Southwestern prehistory.
Ute Mountain Ute Mancos Canyon Historic District
Southeast of Towaoc
National Register 5/2/1972, 5MT.4342 / 5LP.305
The archaeological resources of Mesa Verde and this adjoining area constitute the largest archaeological preserve in the United States. This 125,000-acre private park contains thousands of pueblo ruins and cliff dwellings. The ruins of Mancos Canyon are some of the best preserved remains existing of the Anasazi Culture of the Four Corners Country. (1999 photograph.)
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 6/11/1999, 5MT.136
The site comprises the residential, political and ceremonial core of a larger dispersed community that occupied the area in the late 1100s and early 1200s. The site has the ability to yield important information regarding the organization of prehistoric communities and the nature of political and ceremonial leadership. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.
Seven Towers Pueblo
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 6/11/1999, 5MT.1000
This well preserved large canyon oriented settlement, dating to the late Pueblo III period (AD 1150-1300), has the potential to yield important information about the conditions that led to regional abandonment and the role of intensified horticulture. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.
Joe Ben Wheat Site Complex
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 1/16/2004, 5MT.16722
Consisting of three multi-component sites, the complex has the potential to provide important information about the design and development of Ancestral Puebloan communities. While there is evidence of earlier habitation, the most extensive, visible and impressive architectural elements are from the Great Pueblo Period (AD 1075-1300). Its over 90 rooms, 14 kivas, and a dance plaza constitutes one of the largest satellite settlements of the 13th century community known today as Yellow Jacket. The largest archaeological collection at the University of Colorado Museum comes from these three sites. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission. (1978 photograph.)
Woods Canyon Pueblo
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 6/11/1999, 5MT.11842
An excellent example of a 13th century village built in the open on the rim of a small canyon, the site has the potential to provide important information regarding prehistoric community organization, horticulture, and regional abandonment. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.
Yellowjacket Pueblo / Surouaro
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 9/28/1985; Boundary Increase: State Register 9/10/1997, 5MT.5
Yellowjacket Pueblo is considered one of the largest habitation sites with public architecture in the Mesa Verde region. The expanded State Register boundary includes a 24-acre tract immediately adjacent to the 45-acre National Register parcel.
Yellow Jacket vicinity
National Register 6/11/1999, 5MT.4700
This well preserved example of a small multiple-household was occupied between AD 1200-1250. The site can provide important information about the development of Mesa Verde cultural tradition and kiva architecture. Listed under Great Pueblo Period of the McElmo Drainage Unit, AD 1075-1300 Multiple Property Submission.