White River National Forest
National Register 5/12/1975, 5PT.37
The townsite is significant as the remains of a prosperous Roaring Fork Valley mining camp of the 1880s. Originally known as Castle Forks, the town of Ashcroft was incorporated in 1882. Its peak population of approximately 1,000 supported a variety of commercial enterprises. By the end of 1883, much of the population, and many of the buildings, began moving to Aspen. The post office remained open until 1912, and the last permanent resident left in 1925. Fewer than a dozen of the original log and/or wood frame buildings remain in place. The most prominent is a two-story false front commercial building that housed the Hotel View. The townsite is now interpreted for visitors under the auspices of the Aspen Historical Society. The property is associated with the Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1993 photograph.)
Armory Hall / Fraternal Hall
130 S. Galena St.
National Register 6/5/1975, 5PT.36
Equivalent in height to a three-story building, the hall was constructed in 1892 to house local militia activities on the first floor and a fraternal hall on the second. Over the years, it provided space for a wide variety of community activities, and it has served as the city hall since 1956. The walls are of red brick, and the building’s steeply pitched truncated gable roof includes three evenly spaced hipped roof dormers on its north and south sides. (1998 photograph.)
Aspen Community Church
200 N. Aspen St.
National Register 5/12/1975, 5PT.33
The building, which rises three stories in height, was dedicated as a Presbyterian Church in March 1891. Walls are of random coursed, rough cut sandstone. Somewhat fortress like in overall appearance, the façade is dominated by a large corner bell tower that is cylindrical in form and topped with a bell shaped roof. A heavy slightly pointed arch of stone defines the main entry. The top of the arch is filled with a floral fresco carved from a sandstone slab. Gables extend from the steeply pitched hipped roof. (1974 photograph.)
700 S. Aspen St. (Willoughby Park)
National Register 6/22/1990, 5PT.560
The original boat tow, which utilized two wooden toboggans was constructed in 1937. Measuring twelve feet in length and three feet in width, the four-seat "boats" were connected by steel cable to rotating terminals converted from hoist rigs from the dormant Little Annie Mine on Aspen Mountain. The surviving boat, now located in Willoughby Park, remains important for its association with the early development of Aspen as an international ski resort during the late 1930s. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area.
201 W. Francis St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.525
The house is located on a large corner lot in the late 19th century West End residential neighborhood. Constructed in 1889 for Ryland R. Bowles, an early Aspen contractor and lumber dealer, the two-story brick residence is a good vernacular interpretation of the Queen Anne style, displaying the asymmetrical massing and steeply pitched cross gabled roof often associated with the style. The foundation walls and window sills are of rusticated sandstone. The second owner was William W. Cooley, an Aspen attorney specializing in mining law, who occupied the property during 1891. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
Matthew Callahan Log Cabin
205 S. 3rd St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.149
Believed to date from the early 1880s, the one-story log cabin has a side gabled roof. Constructed with logs hewn into rectangular shapes of varying size, it is one of the few remaining pre-mining era structures known to exist in Aspen. As such it is representative of the materials and technology available at the time of its construction. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1980 photograph.)
Collins Block-Aspen Lumber & Supply
204 S. Mill
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.113.40
Constructed between 1891-93, this somewhat atypical commercial building is located on a downtown corner lot. The first story walls are of rusticated sandstone, while the second story walls are brick. The building exhibits an eclectic mix of Late Victorian and Neoclassical architectural detailing. Between the floors, a Tuscan column supported roof extends out over the sidewalk. At the second story level of the Mill Street side, there is a recessed porch with a wooden balustrade that is topped with Ionic columns. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1975 photograph.)
135 E. Cooper Ave.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.162
Located on a corner lot, this circa 1888 wood frame two-story Queen Anne style residence’s most distinctive architectural feature is a two-story rectangular bay set at an angle on its northeast front corner. Exterior walls are clapboard covered. The complex roof includes a steeply pitched hipped portion and an off-center front gable that is faced with cut shingles. A large shed roofed porch with turned posts and a spindle frieze runs across the north façade. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
D.E. Frantz House
333 W. Bleeker St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.251
Constructed in 1909 for local sawmill owner D.E. Frantz, the 1¾-story wood frame residence has a steeply pitched cross gabled roof. An elaborately detailed oriel window; gable ends, with scalloped wood shingles; and a corner entry porch, with turned posts and decorative brackets are among the architectural elements of the period displayed in this well-crafted representative of the Queen Anne style. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
Samuel L. Hallett House
432 W. Francis St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.262
Beginning as a circa 1885 hand hewn log cabin, alterations and additions believed to date from 1892 transformed the simple building into a one-story clapboard sided dwelling in keeping with the more elegant homes associated with Aspen’s period of development as a mining center. Late Victorian elements include a large wrap around porch. An early occupant, S.L. Hallett, was involved in the management of the Smuggler Mine. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (2000 photograph.)
Holden Mining & Smelting Co.
1000 Block W. Colo. Hwy. 82
National Register 6/22/1990, 5PT.539
From 1891 to 1893, this smelting facility, also known as the Holden Lixiviation Works, played a significant role in the production of silver during Aspen’s silver mining boom. The approximately 2½-acre district encompasses the most important components associated with the operation. The lixiviation process employed salt in the leaching of silver from the ores extracted from nearby mines. The 1½-story wood frame sampling works building, measuring 77 in length and 42 feet in width, and a portion of a one-story salt shed remain on the site. Large portions of the sandstone foundation are all that remain of the multi-story mill building which appears to have been over 250 feet in length. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen and Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submissions. (ca. 2000 photograph.)
330 E. Main St.
National Register 3/20/1986, 5PT.113.2
The three-story red brick hotel occupies a prominent corner location in downtown Aspen. Completed in 1889, the building features numerous round arch window openings and an unusual parapet, with brick work forming four rows of small square panels. The construction of the hotel was financed by Jerome B. Wheeler, one of Aspen’s most notable entrepreneurs, during the town’s early period of development. Many original interior appointments remain in the first floor level. In 1945, the exterior was painted a pale gray with blue trim when Walter Paepcke commissioned Herbert Bayer to oversee a remodeling project on behalf of the Aspen Company. A subsequent project in the mid-1980s included removal of the paint. (2000 photograph.)
203 S. Galena St.
National Register 1/18/1985, 5PT.113.36
Located on a prominent downtown corner, the building was constructed in 1891 by early Aspen promoter David Marks Hyman, who was among the first large investors in the Roaring Fork Mining District. One of the largest business blocks constructed during the boom years before the Silver Crash of 1893, the street walls of the two-story brick building are faced with heavy rusticated sandstone. An oblique corner entry marks the first floor retail space that originally housed the First National Bank of Aspen. The second floor contained office spaces and a lodge meeting hall for the Patriotic Order Sons of America. From the early 1920s into the 1960s, much of the first floor retail space was occupied by a variety of automobile related enterprises initiated by M.H. Brand.
Thomas Hynes House
303 E. Main St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.113.15
This typical clapboard sided miner’s cottage was constructed in 1885. The original one-story dwelling had an L-shaped plan and a steeply pitched cross gabled roof. The west façade features a large double hung window topped with a decorative pent roof and a flat roofed porch with built up posts and a decorative frieze. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1980 photograph.)
La Fave Block
405 S. Hunter St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.113.7
The 1888 two-story brick business block was constructed for Frank La Fave. Architectural details of note include an oblique corner entry and an elaborate cornice. The first floor storefront area features large windows with transoms. It was originally occupied by the St. James Restaurant, which was praised by the Aspen Daily Times for being "magnificent, neat, and clean". During the early 1950s, the building was utilized by architect Fritz Benedict as an office. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (2000 photograph.)
Maroon Creek Bridge
Colo. Hwy. 82, Aspen vicinity
National Register 2/4/1985, 5PT.136
In 1887, the Colorado Midland Railroad and the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad raced to be the first to stretch their rail lines to the mining town of Aspen. The D&RG reached Aspen by October, and the Colorado Midland reached the Maroon Creek Crossing in December. The bridge, completed in 1888, features a multi-span trestle with a built-up steel deck girder. It is one of the last trestles of its design constructed for the state’s narrow gauge mountain railroads during the late 19th century. Listed under Highway Bridges in Colorado Multiple Property Submission and under Railroads in Colorado, 1858-1948 Multiple Property Submission. (1980 photograph.)
New Brick / The Brick Saloon / Red Onion
420 E. Cooper Ave.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.113.5
A good local example of Victorian era commercial architecture, this two-story brick building was constructed in 1892 as a saloon for Tom Latta, a town alderman. The three second story windows are topped with rounded arches that are defined by dentil-like brick work, and a pediment is centered above the intricately detailed cornice. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
Pitkin County Courthouse
506 E. Main St.
National Register 5/12/1975, 5PT.34
Built in 1890, the two-story brick building has a raised basement. The truncated hip roof is topped with a richly detailed, three-tier turret centered over the main entry. (1974 photograph.)
Riede’s City Bakery
413 E. Hyman Ave.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.528.12
Dating from 1885, the one-story wood frame commercial building features a false front with bracketed cornice. A bracketed cornice also tops the storefront windows and recessed double door entry. Although the original use of the building is not documented, Raymond Riede operated a bakery and confectionery business there from 1890 until 1908. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area.
Judge Shaw House / Newberry House
206 Lake Ave.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.116.20
Constructed on a large lot in Hallam’s Addition, the circa 1890 house is best known for its association with Judge Robert Shaw, which began in 1922. Shaw was a practicing attorney specializing in water law, and he served as a county judge from 1921 until 1969. A vernacular interpretation of the Shingle style, the 2½-story wood frame residence has a complex roof. The walls are faced with clapboards on the first story and shingles on the second. Other notable features include a large wrap around porch and an unusual carriage house, which was incorporated into the overall design. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
Mill Street Park
National Register 2/4/1985, 5PT.23
Completed in May 1911, the bridge consisted of a 120’ steel through truss designed by Charles G. Sheely. In 1966, it was shortened and moved to its present location near Aspen where it functions as a pedestrian bridge in Mill Street Park. It is one of the state’s earliest riveted trusses. Listed under Highway Bridges in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (2000 photograph.)
525 N. 2nd St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.528.6
Constructed circa 1890, the large two-story wood frame Queen Anne style residence features clapboard siding and a distinctive polygonal corner tower. The raised foundations walls are of sandstone, and the gable ends of the steeply pitched cross gabled roof are wood shingled. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (2000 photograph.)
320 W. Main St.
National Register 1/19/1989, 5PT.114.19
The large 2½-story wood frame residence is one of Aspen’s best examples of the Queen Anne style. Constructed circa 1890, it has an irregular plan, a multi-gabled roof, a wrap around porch, and a large two-story bay that is topped by a gabled roof dormer. Narrow clapboards face the first floor walls, and the second floor walls are shingled. An intact barn/carriage house, with a dormered gable roof and cupola is also located on the large lot. The first owner was Eben Smith, a successful owner of mining operations, who did much to promote safety and productivity within Colorado’s mining industry. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (2000 photograph.)
National Register 5/18/1987, 5PT.479
In 1879, the Smuggler was among the first strikes made by Charles Bennett when he and other Leadville miners first came to the Roaring Fork Valley, and the Smuggler Mining Company was incorporated in November 1881. As one of the top silver and lead producers in the Aspen area, the mine was among the few that continued to operate after the Silver Crash of 1893. Active mining ceased in 1918, and the substantial wood frame buildings associated with the operation were dismantled. In addition to numerous underground tunnels, early tailings piles remain visible on the site. Mining resumed after World War II, and most of the wood frame and metal buildings now on the site were constructed after 1950. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen and Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submissions. (1986 photograph.)
National Register 4/1/2002, 5PT.122
Ute Cemetery is important for its association with the settlement of Aspen. Beginning with the first burial in 1880, the cemetery became the final resting place for numerous settlers. When the community established two other more formally designed cemeteries, Ute Cemetery remained the burial ground for Aspen residents of modest means and uncelebrated accomplishments. (2001 photograph.)
Davis Waite House
234 W. Francis St.
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.528.7
Constructed in 1888, the Late Victorian style two-story wood frame dwelling was occupied by Davis H. Waite before and after his two year term as Colorado’s governor. Serving at the time of the Silver Crash of 1893, Waite also oversaw the enactment of women’s suffrage in Colorado. A lawyer and member of the Populist Party, Waite was an early publisher of the Aspen Times. Listed under Historic Resources of Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (2000 photograph.)
Henry Webber House / Pioneer Park
442 W. Bleeker
National Register 3/6/1987, 5PT.115.10
Often referred to as Pioneer Park, the 1½-story brick house was constructed in 1885 for Henry Webber, a shoe and boot merchant, who came to Aspen in 1880 and subsequently amassed considerable wealth through his mining investments. Featuring a mansard roof with multiple dormers, the well preserved dwelling is a rare local example of the Second Empire style. Listed under Aspen Multiple Resource Area. (1986 photograph.)
Wheeler Opera House
330 E. Hyman Ave.
National Register 8/21/1972, 5PT.35
Financed by Jerome B. Wheeler, construction of the massive three-story commercial building located on a prominent downtown corner began in 1888 and was completed in 1898. Designed by early Denver architect Willoughby J. Edbrooke, utilizing a mix of Romanesque and Italianate style architectural elements, the primarily hipped roof building has walls of peachblow sandstone. Rounded arches define window and door openings on the first and third levels. Retail spaces were located on the first floor, professional offices were on the second, and the Opera House occupied the entire third floor. A fire gutted the third floor in 1912, and it remained closed off until 1947 when the upper two floors were leased to the Aspen Company. (1971 photograph.)
620 W. Bleeker St.
National Register 5/30/1975, 5PT.32
Constructed in 1888 for Jerome B. Wheeler, an investor from New York who played an important role in Aspen’s evolution from a mining camp into a town of culture and refinement, the two-story brick house also includes a finished attic level. The building’s importance as a good local example of the Queen Anne style is reflected in its steeply pitched complex roof, asymmetrical massing, and decorative shingled gable ends. Purchased by Walter Paepcke in 1945, this distinctive residence was conveyed to the Aspen Historical Society for use as a museum in 1969. (ca. 2000 photograph.)
Independence & Independence Mill Site
Colo. Hwy. 82, White River National Forest
National Register 4/11/1973, 5PT.18
The cluster of log cabins and cabin ruins remaining on the site are associated with early mining history in the Upper Roaring Fork area of eastern Pitkin County. Most of the buildings in the settlement, which extended along the Roaring Fork River, have collapsed or lack roofs. Located on the Independence Pass wagon road between Aspen and Leadville, the town served as a good stopping point for travelers. Population reportedly grew from 150 miners in 1881 to approximately 2,000 residents during the mid-1880s. By the late 1880s, fewer than 100 residents remained, and most commercial enterprises had either closed or relocated to Aspen. The property is associated with the Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1999 photograph.)
Osgood Castle / Cleveholm
National Register 6/28/1971, 5PT.553.2
Also known as Cleveholm, the sprawling forty-two room mansion is located approximately one mile south of Redstone. Designed for John Cleveland Osgood, under the direction of the New York architectural firm of Boal & Harnois, the residence was completed in 1903. Reminiscent of a 16th century Tudor manor house in its overall appearance, towers, turrets, and oriel windows are among the most interesting architectural details. First and second story walls are of cut and coursed red sandstone, while the third story and gable ends are covered with wood shingles. Osgood first traveled west in 1882 and found his riches in Colorado coal fields. He founded the Colorado Fuel Company, which he later merged with Colorado Coal and Iron Company to form the powerful Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, commonly referred to as CF&I. (1994 photograph.)
The 1901 lodge is located slightly north of the Osgood Castle. Designed in the Swiss Chalet style by architect Theodore Boal, the 1½-story wood shingled lodge served as the residence for the caretaker of John C. Osgood’s private game preserve. Dominating the façade are full-width galleries with decorative cut and sawn balustrades. Large carved spindles support a balcony located under the wide, projecting eaves of the clipped gable roof. Listed under Historic Resources of Redstone, Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (1999 photograph.)
642 Redstone Blvd.
National Register 8/18/1983, 5PT.443
Dating from 1901, the small wood frame cottage is topped with a pyramidal roof. It is representative of the dwellings erected under the direction of John C. Osgood as housing for married workers associated with his coal related operations, which thrived in the area from 1899 to 1909. Osgood created his model company town based on a belief that providing better living conditions would result in greater production. Although the Redstone cottages were based on standard plans, they exhibited an eclectic mix of then popular styles in their varied ornamentation. Many of the one hundred cottages constructed by 1902 were subsequently demolished or moved to other locations.
Redstone Coke Oven Historic District
Colo. Hwy. 133 & Chair Mountain Stables Rd., Redstone vicinity
National Register 2/7/1990, 5PT.451
The District is important for its association with the development of the coal mining and processing industry in Colorado. The ovens were constructed by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in 1899, during a period of expansion in the processing of coking coal brought about by the increased demand from the region’s smelting industry. The Redstone ovens are also an important engineering resource, representing a type of industrial structure no longer in use and rapidly disappearing from the West. Listed under Historic Resources of Redstone, Colorado Multiple Property Submission.
Redstone Historic District
Along Crystal River, Hawk Creek to 226 Redstone Blvd.
National Register 7/19/1989, 5PT.553
The Redstone Historic District is a rare, intact Colorado example of an industrial company town, with examples of buildings ranging from worker’s cottages to the large estate of the industrial magnate John Cleveland Osgood. Osgood, as head of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company from 1892 until 1903, regarded Redstone as his personal project and saw the town’s development as a model and standard for the industry. The district survives as a major body of work by architect Theodore Boal. Boal adapted popular Victorian styles to a mountain setting utilizing unique combinations of wood and stone in his picturesque designs. Listed under Historic Resources of Redstone, Colorado and Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submissions. (Superintendent’s House, 1988 photograph.)
82 Redstone Blvd.
National Register 3/27/1980, 5PT.553.1
The inn originally functioned as part of the model community built by John C. Osgood for the workers associated with his nearby coke producing and coal mining operations. The 2½-story wood frame building was constructed in 1902 for the primary purpose of housing bachelor miners in somewhat elegant surroundings. A large square clock tower, which incorporates a red sandstone base; extensive cross-timbering; and a steeply pitched pyramidal roof, rising a full story above the apex of the building’s roof are among the distinctive architectural details. The property is associated with the Mining Industry in Colorado Multiple Property Submission. (ca. 1979 photograph.)