The Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP) houses a collection of documents that include historic context information covering various neighborhoods, municipalities and regions across Colorado. These are available in the form of survey reports, historic contexts, Multiple Property Documentation Forms (MPDF), survey plans, and, in some cases, design guidelines. OAHP is engaged in an ongoing effort to make this information available online and this page offers access to the documents currently available in a digital format. Documents are organized by county, with those covering multi-county areas or regions listed in the statewide section below.
OAHP welcomes digital submissions of context documents not currently listed on this page. If you have a document that you believe should be added to this page, please contact Astrid Liverman at email@example.com
1.c) near Pleasant View
2.c) AD 650-1250
3.b) Habitation Site
The Puzzle House is one of four major habitation sites located in the Puzzle House Archaeological District. The district also contains three pre-Columbian road segments and numerous other sites, features, and artifacts all representing a residential community associated with adjacent Lowry Pueblo, a great house complex that shows evidence of influence or alliance with the large Chacoan centers to the south. The sites are significant as they represent Basketmaker III through early Pueblo III (AD 650-1250) exploration, settlement, and community planning and development located within the central Mesa Verde region.
Based on tree-ring cutting dates, archaeomagnetic dates, and ceramic types, the Puzzle House District belongs to the Northern San Juan branch of the Ancestral Puebloan (previously referred to as the “Anasazi”) cultural tradition, linked historically and culturally to modern Pueblo Indian peoples of Arizona and New Mexico. The Puzzle House site includes a pitstructure with antechamber, a masonry roomblock with four rooms, two masonry kivas, and a tunnel connecting the western roomblock to the kivas. The inhabitants constructed the site from locally quarried sandstone using local clay soils for mortar.
Researchers found that primary sites within the district were used for dry farming with plots cleared for agriculture along with fallow fields with some natural vegetation. Construction nearly ceased between AD 1140 and 1180 likely due to a regional drought and a depletion of the northern San Juan woodland area. Evidence revealed that between AD 1150 and 1225, an increase in settlement clustering occurred, where several individual roomblock-kiva complexes were grouped together. Puzzle House District residents abandoned these homes circa mid-thirteenth century, moving to more aggregated sites requiring less maintenance.
The Puzzle House District was listed in the State Register in 2008. The site has excellent potential of yielding important information to our understanding of Southwestern prehistory.
In 1887 Albert N. Corliss (known to friends and family as A.N.) left Vermont at the age of 23 to start a new life in Colorado. By 1892 he had married Lillian May Yale and three years later took up a homestead on the Republican River in Kit Carson County. The area was known as Tuttle and had artesian wells, the South Fork of the Republican River, and several natural lakes on the property. (read more...)
In February 1911 Albert Anderson was one of the last open range cowboys when he bought 640 acres of Sedgwick County land that the previous owner had purchased from the Union Pacific Railroad. Here he and wife Ruth began to farm and ranch before selling the land to Albert’s brother Benjamin in 1919, only to buy it back in 1926. (read more...)
In 1886 George and Ann Poe and their four children homesteaded on the Frenchman Creek 6 miles east of Holyoke, Phillips County. 1894 was very dry, and the crops wouldn’t grow so they turned the cattle loose, pulled up stakes, and drifted with the cattle into the sand hills 4 miles southeast of the original place. (read more...)
Theodore and Francis Greenwood settled on 160 Kit Carson County acres in 1908 and received their patent a few years later. The tax in 1909 was $11.40 and was made in two payments. Much of the land was left in native grass, but the rest was put to use growing ha and livestock feed, as well as raising horses, sheep, and cattle. (read more...)
At over one hundred years old, Hogan Ranch, located on County Road J in Kit Carson County, was settled in 1899 by James Hogan and his wife Rosa. The Homestead Certificate was received on December 1, 1905. Upon James’ death in 1945, George, the third of his six children, and George’s wife Beulah took over operation before purchasing the ranch in 1964 from the estate of Rosa. (read more...)
The original 320 acres of Moffat County land were homesteaded in 1911 by Olive and George Boughton. In 1917 the ranch grew by 320 acres when the homestead of Tom Allen, who Olive married after George had died, was added. Additional acres were added over time, including in 1969 when John Allen was able to buy back 1300 acres which had been lost by the family to the Federal Land Bank during the 1930s. (read more...)
Fred Magnuson purchased 98 acres in Weld County in 1910 from John and Christina Smillie who had homesteaded under the Timber Culture Act. Fred and his wife Josephine were already farming and residing on another nearby farm. They paid $15,000 for their new place, though they never actually lived on it. (read more...)
Guy L. Porter came to Washington County from Nebraska and claimed a one-half section of land under the Homestead Act. He proved up and received a patent on the property in 1912. Two years later he married Ida Richards of New York and the couple had five daughters and one son. In the early years the Porters milked cows and raised pigs. (read more...)
Royal Richardson came to America from Durham County, England, in the late 1800s with his mother, father, two brothers, and a sister. The family sent their money ahead to Missouri, where it was swindled away from them so they lived in a chicken coop for a few years in Nodaway County, Missouri. (read more...)
James Fort received the patent to 160 Montrose County acres on June 2, 1910. Another 40 acres was added later. Crops have included alfalfa, wheat, oats, and garden vegetables. Irrigation water from Tabeguache Creek runs through the property. Deer, elk, turkeys, mountain lions, coyotes, prairie dogs, and rabbits are commonly seen. (read more...)
Settled in 1910; located in Nucla/Montrose County.
James Fort received the patent to 160 Montrose County acres on June 2, 1910. Another 40 acres was added later. Crops have included alfalfa, wheat, oats, and garden vegetables. Irrigation water from Tabeguache Creek runs through the property. Deer, elk, turkeys, mountain lions, coyotes, prairie dogs, and rabbits are commonly seen. Charles and Nita Marie Templeton bought the farm from her father, James Fort, in September 1910, and the ranch has been in the Templeton name ever since. Currently the farm is hay and pastureland and held by Violet Marie Templeton and her children Mark Edward Templeton and Susan Marie Rutherford. Mark does most of the work on the ranch with some help from the rest of the family. He lives on the ranch part-time. The Rocking-Reverse E- Connected K brand has been associated with the Ranch.
Royal Richardson came to America from Durham County, England, in the late 1800s with his mother, father, two brothers, and a sister. The family sent their money ahead to Missouri, where it was swindled away from them so they lived in a chicken coop for a few years in Nodaway County, Missouri. Money was short so Royal boarded a train to work in the sugar beet fields on the front range of Colorado and noticed Yuma’s agricultural attributes on his journey. He came back and purchased a quarter of land in 1911 that was six miles northeast of Yuma. Royal’s two brothers also settled in the Yuma area. Royal met Amanda Stangel at a jack rabbit hunt and later she became his wife. From this union, Margie, Kathryn, and Russell were born. Times were tough. Stories were told of burning buffalo and cow manure to stay warm in the winters. The land provided feed for chickens and milk cows, as that was their main crop for 30 years. Irrigation was added in the late 1950s and five more quarters were purchased. Through the 1950s to the 1980s, Russell developed irrigation on the farm. Today, grandson Ruben and wife Connie and their four children farm and live on the original acres.
Settled in 1912; located in Lindon/Washington County.
Guy L. Porter came to Washington County from Nebraska and claimed a one-half section of land under the Homestead Act. He proved up and received a patent on the property in 1912. Two years later he married Ida Richards of New York and the couple had five daughters and one son. In the early years the Porters milked cows and raised pigs. During the Depression, the younger children herded hundreds of turkeys that fed on grasshoppers. The family processed the birds and took them to Denver along with cans of cream to sell. Later Hereford cattle were introduced. When Guy died, the farm was divided among the six children and Ida. Tom worked the land and eventually purchased the property from his sisters. Today the farm is at 4160 acres. It is held by Bonita Porter and her four daughters. Much of the farmland is planted with grass for grazing and about 900 acres are leased for wheat, mullet, and cattle.
Fred Magnuson purchased 98 acres in Weld County in 1910 from John and Christina Smillie who had homesteaded under the Timber Culture Act. Fred and his wife Josephine were already farming and residing on another nearby farm. They paid $15,000 for their new place, though they never actually lived on it. By 1917 their second son Carl married Esther Eskilson, and the young couple moved onto the farm where they built a house by 1919. The house, barn, garage, tank house, and chicken coop were all constructed of brick made in the kiln owned by Carl’s father. Brick from Denver was used on the final layer.
Carl purchased the farm from his father in 1934, and shortly after, he purchased the 135 acre farm across the road. At this time the principal crops raised were small grains, potatoes, and sugar beets. Carl served as a county commissioner, State Senator, and Representative starting in the 1950s. Upon his death in 1983, the farm passed to son Gordon, who had been working on the farm since graduating from then Colorado A&M in 1942. He and his wife Margaret lived on the Magnuson Farm their entire married life.
In 1974, Gordon’s son Ted joined the family farming business, and he continued to look over operations, until his death in 2008 after which his wife Susie and sons Tim and Jim took over. Over the years, corn and alfalfa were raised, and a cattle operation took on additional effort. Today Susie, Tim, and Jim operate the farm that includes 233 acres of corn and alfalfa. The wonderful brick buildings, which include the house, well and tank house, barn and garage are still in place and look as good as when they were first built in 1919.